Copyright 1983 by the
Bromeliad Society, Inc.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
SEPTEMBER — OCTOBER 1983
PICTURE ON THE COVERA Venetian palace, built in Sarasota, Florida, the Ca'd'Zan, and Neoregelia King of Kings 'Silver Chalice #1' & 'Silver Chalice #2' (Neoregelia concentrica #1 × Neoregelia Decora) see p. 208 for article. Photo by James V. Elmore.
Picture on the Back Cover: Stained glass windows by Barbara Meise Kassis. See p. 199 for article. Photo by Albert M. Hodes.
HARRY E. LUTHERWithout question one of the most difficult and frustrating groups of bromeliads from a taxonomic standpoint are the Brazilian neoregelias: Neoregelia subg. Neoregelia. Nearly 75% of the specimens submitted to the BIC fail to fit comfortably within any of the 66 presently recognized species in this subgenus. When one considers that Neoregelia is one of the most horticulturally important genera of bromeliads, this problem of identification and classification takes on quite serious proportions. Many if not most of the hybrids presently in circulation have one or more of their species parents misdetermined. Several of the so-called species of Neoregelia that are widely cultivated have little or no relationship with the true species of that name. A number of species that at one time were known to be cultivated seem to have disappeared and have been replaced by totally different plants, often of hybrid origin.
The reasons for this rather chaotic state can be summarized as follows:
- Many of the species are very
poorly circumscribed and are known from a type of questionable or horticultural
origin. The original descriptions are often lacking in detail, and
illustrations, if available, are often inaccurate. The actual type specimens
are often not available for study.
- Many species are botanically
known from only 1 or a very few collections; the range of variation to be
expected with new collections is therefore a mystery.
- The superficially similar,
abbreviated inflorescence of the 'typical' species of Neoregelia is somewhat
lacking in many of the traditional diagnostic characters used to distinguish
other taxa. The relative size of the floral bracts and sepals and sepal shape
are often the only criteria useful to separate species.
- The size, shape and
coloration of the vegetative parts are extremely variable depending on
environment and the particular clone involved. Bracts, sepals and petal color
may vary also. In addition these latter characteristics are not always
mentioned in the literature and are rarely discernible from dried specimens.
- Neoregelias may hybridize in
nature and certainly have been mixed in cultivation. A wild origin for a
particular plant is no guarantee of species purity.
|Photo by Denis Cathcart|
|Neoregelia hatschbachii (left), Neoregelia binotii (center) and Neoregelia cathcartii (right)|
Following is an alphabetically ordered listing of the species of Neoregelia subg. Neoregelia with notes on their occurrence in horticulture based upon my own limited experience.
N. abendrothae L.B. Sm., 1960. Known from the type collection only; 1 clone in cultivation.
N. albiflora L.B. Sm., 1943. Known from the type collection only; all material cultivated is N. tigrina.
N. amandae Weber, 1979. Known from the type collection only (cultivated); no material seen.
N. ampullacea (E. Morr.) L.B. Sm., 1934. A quite variable species with several distinct clones in cultivation.
N. angustifolia Pereira, 1975. Known from the type collection only; no living material seen.
N. atroviridifolia Weber, 1982. Known from the type collection only (cultivated); no material seen.
N. bahiana (Ule) L.B. Sm., 1935. Known from several collections, 2 vars. described. L.B. Smith considers N. intermedia to be conspecific. Apparently not common in horticulture, no material seen.
N. binotii (Ant.) L.B. Sm., 1936. Known from 2 collections, no cultivated material seen.
N. brevifolia LB. Sm., & Reitz, 1967. Known from the type collection only, very doubtfully cultivated.
N. carcharodon (Bak.) L.B. Sm., 1935. Known from several collections but the material cultivated under this name does not seem very similar to the type.
N. carcharodon 'Rubra' has not been examined.
N. carolinae (Beer) L.B. Sm., 1939. Well represented in herbaria and cultivation; quite variable in size and coloration. Many cultivated forms are highly selected and may be hybrids.
N. chlorosticta (Bak.) L.B. Sm., 1964. Well documented, at least 2 clones in cultivation but much material appears to be of hybrid origin.
N. compacta (Mez) L.B. Sm., 1939. At least 3 similar but distinct clones in cultivation. Easily distinguished from all other species except N. macwilliamsii.
N. concentrica (Veil.) L.B. Sm., 1934. Well represented in herbaria and cultivation. Quite variable and appears to intergrade with N. cruenta and N. melanodonta.
N. coriacea (Ant.) L.B. Sm., 1955. Very poorly known and quite possibly extinct in cultivation.
N. cruenta (R. Graham) L.B. Sm., 1939. Many collections known, quite variable; said to hybridize with N. marmorata in nature. Some of the cultivated plants are very close to N. concentrica but extreme (typical?) plants are very distinct.
N. cyanea (Beer) L.B. Sm., 1939. Known from several collections and with several clones in cultivation.
N. diamantinensis Pereira, 1975. Known from the type collection only, no cultivated material examined.
N. diversifolia Pereira, 1975. Known from the type collection only, no cultivated material seen.
N. doeringiana L.B. Sm., 1960. Known from the type collection only, not known in cultivation.
N. dungsiana Pereira, 1972. Known from the type collection only, no cultivated material seen.
N. elmoreana Luther, 1982. Known from the type collection only cultivated. Apparently only 1 clone in cultivation.
N. farinosa (Ule) L.B. Sm., 1939. Known from several collections but usually represented in horticulture by hybrid plants; possibly 1 clone in limited cultivation.
N. fluminensis L.B. Sm., 1955. Botanically known from the type collection but at least 2 distinct clones in limited cultivation.
N. fosteriana L.B. Sm., 1950. Known from several collections from the type area. Cultivated material apparently descended from the type collection.
N. hatschbachii L.B. Sm., 1972. Known from the type collection only, at least 1 clone in cultivation which originally circulated as N. bahiana 'Rubra.'
N. hoehneana L.B.SM., 1955. Known from the type collection only but 1 clone widely cultivated but rarely flowering. A very distinctive species.
N. indecora (Mez) L.B. Sm., 1939. A poorly known species probably not in cultivation.
N. johannis (Carr.) L.B. Sm., 1955. Known from the type collection (cultivated) only and very doubtfully still established in horticulture. Cultivated material under this name seems close to N. concentrica.
N. kautskyi Pereira, 1971. Known from the type collection only but well established in cultivation.
N. kuhlmannii L.B. Sm., 1955. Known from the type collection only, probably not in cultivation.
N. laevis (Mez) L.B. Sm., 1934. Well documented, 1 or 2 clones in general cultivation. Said to vary in coloration.
N. leprosa L.B. Sm., 1955. Known from the type collection only, at least 1 clone in limited cultivation.
N. leucophoea (Bak.) L.B. Sm., 1939. Known from the type (cultivated) collection only, no material seen.
N. lilliputiana Pereira, 1974. Known from the type collection only; doubtfully distinct from N. ampullacea.
N. lymaniana Braga & Sucre, 1974. Known from the type collection only, apparently similar to N. fosteriana and N. marchallii, no material seen.
N. macaensis (Ule) L.B. Sm., 1939. Known from the type collection only, no living material examined.
N. macrosepala L.B. Sm., 1955. Known from 2 collections and represented in horticulture by at least 2 clones. Some material under this name appears to be of hybrid origin.
N. maculata L.B. Sm., 1967. Known from 2 collections, the cultivated material is probably descended from the type.
N. macwilliamsii L.B. Sm., 1969. Known from the type collection only, at least 1 clone in cultivation. Uncomfortably close to N. compacta.
N. magdalenae L.B. Sm. & Reitz, 1967. Poorly known, probably not in cultivation.
N. marcellii Pereira & Moutinho, 1980. Known from the type collection only but recently a distinct clone has entered cultivation.
N. marmorata (Bak.) L.B. Sm., 1939. A well collected species but poorly represented in cultivation. 1 or 2 clones cultivated but most material grown under this name are hybrids (often complex).
N. melanodonta L.B. Sm., 1955. Known from the type collection only (a cultivated plant.). No presently grown material seems a close match to the type and these are doubtfully distinct from N. concentrica.
N. olens (Hook. f.) L.B. Sm., 1939. Botanically known from the original description and plate but with at least 3 distinct clones in cultivation. Often grown as 'Vulcan' or '696'.
N. oligantha L.B. Sm., 1955. Known from the type collection only, 1 or 2 clones in limited cultivation.
N. pabstiana Pereira, 1972. Known from the type collection only, no living material seen.
N. pascoaliana L.B. Sm., 1972. Known from the type collection only, a distinctive species that does not as yet seem to be in cultivation.
N. pauciflora L.B. Sm., 1955. Known from the type collection only but at least 2 or 3 similar clones are cultivated.
N. paulistana Pereira, 1975. Known from the type collection only, no cultivated material examined.
N. pineliana (Lem.) L.B. Sm., 1936. 2 vars. known, both from cultivation. Possibly 1 clone in limited cultivation, most material cultivated under this name appears to be a hybrid with N. carolinae.
N. princeps (Bak.) L.B. Sm., 1936. 2 vars. described based upon very limited material. This is probably the most misapplied name in the genus; all material so named that I have examined is N. carolinae. The true N. princeps is represented by 2 very similar clones that are only now beginning to spread in horticulture.
N. punctatissima (Ruschi) Ruschi 1954. Known from the type collection only, all cultivated material is referred to N. ampullacea.
N. richteri Weber, 1982. Known from the type collection only (cultivated).
N. roethii Weber, 1982. Known from the type collection only (cultivated).
N. rubrifolia Ruschi, 1954. Known from the type collection only, similar to N. ampullacea. No living material seen.
N. sarmentosa (Regel) L.B. Sm., 1934. Well represented in herbaria with several clones widely cultivated.
N. seideliana L.B. Sm. & Reitz 1964. Known from the type collection only, no living material examined.
N. simulans L.B. Sm., 1967. Known from the type collection only but at least 2 color forms in limited cultivation.
N. smithii Weber, 1982. Known from the type (cultivated) collection only.
N. spectabilis (Moore) L.B. Sm., 1934. Well represented in herbaria but relatively uncommon in cultivation; nearly all material seen intergrades with N. marmorata. The pure species is quite distinctive and attractive.
N. tigrina (Ruschi) Ruschi, 1954. Known from the type collection only but well established in cultivation (as N. albiflora).
N. tristis (Beer) L.B. Sm., 1935. Known from several collections and represented in horticulture by 3 or 4 quite variable clones.
N. uleana L.B. Sm., 1955. Known from the type collection only, said to be in cultivation but I have not seen flowering material.
N. wilsoniana M.B. Foster, 1960. Known from several collections with at least 2 clones cultivated.
N. zonata L.B. Sm., 1950. Known from the type collection only; all cultivated material apparently descended from type.
|Photo by Denis Cathcart|
|Neoregelia maculata (left) and Neoregelia abendrothae (right)|
In addition, several apparently undescribed species are attaining rather wide distribution and it is to be hoped that growers will refrain from attaching fictitious names to these plants.
The Mulford B. Foster Bromeliad Identification Center, Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida
GUSTAVO MARTINELLI & ELTON M. C. LEMEThis report is a contribution to the study of various species of the Bromeliaceae that are believed to be no longer in existence or are considered rare due to the lack of sufficient data from field collections and research.
In October, 1978, a research team from the Botanic Garden of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, conducted an expedition in the state of Bahia. A large number of species including some unknown to science and others that are of great interest to botanists were collected. Among the latter species was Vriesea lancifolia (Baker) L.B. Smith, which previously had been thought to be no longer in existence.
As was pointed out by Wilhelm Weber in an article in the Journal of the Bromeliad Society, V. XXXII, Sept.-Oct. 1982, p. 216, this species was first described by Baker in his Handbook of Bromeliaceae, published in 1889, as Tillandsia lancifolia. The description was based on material stored in the British Museum and which had been collected between 1828 and 1856 by Blanchet at Igreja Velha in the state of Bahia, under the registry No. 3458.
Vriesea lancifolia was found by the 1978 expedition to occur in certain areas in the vegetation complex called rupestral fields or stony fields. The composition of this complex reflects the very special conditions involving the local climate, topography, soil and drainage characteristics. The main constituents are herbaceous, shrubby and subshrubby species forming a covering that adheres to the rocky outcroppings to heights of over 400 m. Although this vegetative covering appears to be uniform, it is quite varied in terms of species and a large number of endemics are present due to the particular geo-climatic conditions that occur.
The first collection of V. lancifolia was obtained on the banks of the Itapicuru River in the region of Jacobina, Bahia. In addition, species in the Orchidaceae, Piperaceae, Cactaceae, Araceae, and Velloziaceae were found. Other bromeliads such as Cottendorfia florida, Orthophytum navioides, O. amoenum, Dyckia maracasensis, Encholirium spectabile, E. hoehneanum, Neoregelia bahiana var. bahiana, Vriesea oligantha, Tillandsia bulbosa, T. loliacea, T. gardneri, Hohenbergia catingae, H. ramageana, and H. vestita were found.
The second area where V. lancifolia was collected did not differ in general characteristics from the first collection site. Again, a rupestral formation was encountered but this time in the region of Serra de Andarai or Sincora, known locally as the Serra do Capa Bode. As before, many of the same species of bromeliads listed above were found here too. In both locations, peculiarities of climate and soil composition are such that bringing V. lancifolia into cultivation is difficult. Herbarium and live specimens were taken to the Botanic Garden of Rio de Janeiro. Of the living plants, cultivated under the No. 269, only one has flowered up to the present time. Unfortunately, the cultivated plants have lost some of their characteristics, such as coloring, density of scales on the leaves and overall form probably because of changes in such additional factors as water and light. The description of the species which follows is based therefore mainly on field observations.
|Rupestral fields, habitat of Vriesea lancifolia|
PLANT: flowering up to 70 cm high. LEAVES: in a dense rosette, erect, to 20 cm long. LEAF SHEATHS: large, elliptic. LEAF BLADES: lance-triangular, acuminate, 35-45 mm wide at the base, argenteo-lepidote, with purple spots. SCAPE: slender, erect, green with dark red spots. SCAPE BRACTS: erect, elliptic green with argentous indument, the lowest with narrow blades equaling the internodes, the upper apiculate, much shorter than the internodes. INFLORESCENCE: simple, lax, 8-15 cm long, up to 10-flowered. RACHIS: flexuous, slender, dark red. FLORAL BRACTS: broadly ovate, obtuse, 8-12 mm long, much exceeded by the sepals, sparsely lepidote. FLOWERS: secund before and after anthesis, nocturnal. PEDICELS: short. SEPALS: elliptic, obtuse, 18 mm long, green with dark red margins, sparsely lepidote. PETALS: 25 mm long, cream. STAMENS & PISTIL: included.
COLLECTIONS: State of Bahia, Brazil, city of Andarai, Andarai-Capa Bode, road to Mucuge, rupestral fields, 700-1,200 m above sea level, Oct. 30, 1978, Leg. G. Martinelli nr. 5433 (RB nr. 210.276). Also, Bahia, city of Jacobina, Capim Grosso-Jacobina Road, rupestral formations on the banks of the Itapicuru River, 450 m above sea level, Oct. 29, 1978, Leg. G. Martinelli Nr. 5153 (RB nr. 210.257). Also, Bahia, city of Andarai, Serra de Andarai-Capa Bode, road to Mucuge, rupestral fields, 700-1,200 m above sea level, Oct. 30, 1978, Leg. G. Martinelli nr. 5461 (RB nr. 209.775).
In December, 1981, Andre M. De Carvalho of the Botanical Section of CEPLAC, Ilheus, Bahia, also collected V. lancifolia but in the city of Lencois, region of Diamantina plateau, Br. 246, Mucugezinho, Bahia.
The rediscovery of V. lancifolia undoubtedly means that there is hope that some species previously considered to have vanished are still surviving in regions difficult to reach and therefore not thoroughly explored. The standard of human activity in such areas from a conservation point of view is presently not high because the criminal setting of fires, running of cattle, unruly agricultural practices and multitude of irrational human attitudes toward the use of natural resources contribute in a devastating way to the degradation of the fragile ecosystems in which plants such as V. lancifolia may still be surviving. It is not satisfactory to consider a species "saved" just because it becomes cultivated and is spread out of its native habitat, for this attitude devalues the real meaning of preservation. In addition, the maintenance in herbaria of specimens of species which are not found in nature any longer, is of little value.
It is clear that a program aimed at the preservation of endangered and rare species such as V. lancifolia must invariably involve the perpetuation of the entire biotic communities in which such species are able to survive. Only by this method will we be able to assure for future generations the effective preservation of important and worthy, but fragile, segments of a native flora.
Baker, J.G. 1889. Handbook of Bromeliaceae, Vol. 8, reprinted 1972, New York.
Martinelli, G. 1978. Relatorio da Excursao aos Municipios de Jacobina, Morro do chapeu, Lencois, Andarai, Mucuge e Contendas do Sincora, no Estado da Bahia. 32 pp. Unpublished.
Rizzini, C.T. 1979. Tratado de Fitogeografia do Brasil. Editora Universidade de Sao Paulo. Vol. 2:212-314.
Smith, L.B. & R.J. Downs 1977. Bromeliaceae (Tillandsioideae), Flora Neotropica Monograph 14, Part 2:1118-1119 (Fig. 359).
Weber, W. 1982. Journal of the Brom. Soc. Vol. XXXII, nr. 5, 215-219.
Botanic Garden of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
ALBERT M. HODESThe 2 greenhouses filled solely with bromeliads that I have collected from all over Central and South America, and with plants that I have purchased or traded, provide my family and me with much enjoyment all year long.
When we recently decided to redecorate our living room, I thought of a novel focal point of interest: the crowning touch of elegance for the room. We would remove the 3 existing stained-glass windows and replace them with windows depicting some of my favorite plants in full flower; thus we would enjoy their beauty in all seasons.
We began with a search for a stained-glass artist who not only had the talent and skill for the job, but who would also appreciate the beauty of bromeliads. After meeting with a few artists, we gave the assignment to Barbara Meise Kassis whose work with flowers was most impressive. It was when Barbara visited our house that she first saw bromeliads. As we walked through the greenhouses, looking at the plants, their foliage and flowers, I discussed with Mrs. Kassis the life history of bromeliads, the various habitats they live in, and the varieties to be found in various climates. Then, I narrowed our field of attention to some of my favorite plants.
The next step was to obtain photographs of these specific plants. Searching through my library, I was able to provide Barbara with illustrations of the selected plants, and armed with these, she began her work. Meanwhile, we eagerly awaited the appearance of her preliminary sketches. Six weeks later, Mrs. Kassis brought us drawings that were far more beautiful than anything we had expected. After an enthusiastic discussion, some minor changes involving choices of type of glass, shades of green, etc., were made and the windows were started.
Two months later, they were installed. Photographs do not do justice to the unforgettable sight of the rays of the sun streaming through our permanent pictures of bromeliads in bloom.
Mrs. Kassis' work is on display in various museums, and has also been shown on television. Not only has she mastered the use of colored glass in her work, but her techniques include acid etching whereby she is able to capture the finer details of her subjects.
Tenafly, New Jersey
WERNER RAUHDuring a trip to northern and central Panama in July 1982, some new bromeliads were discovered, in particular, a very attractive, epiphytic, small species of Catopsis with olive-brown leaves and a short, decurved laxly bipinnate inflorescence (photo). This interesting, new species is named Catopsis pisiformis Rauh because the flower buds resemble in size, color and shape those of the common garden pea, Pisum sativum. It grows in a humid mountain forest above Valle de Anton at an elevation of about 900 m where it is associated with many other bromeliads, both epiphytic and terrestrial. Among them are Tillandsia guanacastensis, T. spiculosa var. ustulata, T. bulbosa, Guzmania musaica and G. musaica var. concolor, G. dissitiflora, G. nicaraguensis, G. plicatifolia, Vriesea graminifolia, V. ringens, some large species of Vriesea with funnelform rosettes but without inflorescences, and Ronnbergia explodens. In addition to the bromeliads, and of particular interest was Stegolepis allienii, a representative of the endemic family Rapataceae. This family is closely related to the Bromeliaceae and most of the species placed in it grow as terrestrials in a humid, sandy or swampy substrate. Stegolepis allienii is an epiphyte, however, and has a growth form similar to that of the bird's nest fern: Asplenium nidus. Growing in the same forest was the truly rare epiphyte fern, Solanopteris brunonis, whose short branches are transformed into hollow bulbs which are populated with ants. A description Catopsis pisiformis follows:
PLANT: grows singly or in clumps (photo) and can be confused with Tillandsia guanacastensis in the vegetative state. ROSETTES: up to 10 cm high, conical, somewhat bulbous at the base and here about 5 cm in diameter. OUTER ROSETTE LEAVES: bladeless. INNER ROSETTE LEAVES: often arranged in 5 rows; the conspicuous sheaths are spoon-like, broad-ovate, 4 cm high and 4 cm wide, membranaceous, pale-brownish with darker stripes, hyalin at the margin and laxly lepidote on both sides. BLADES: triangular, 3-3.5 cm long, sharply acute, erect, strongly revolute at the margins, waxy when young, later glabrous, olive-green, nearly glabrous. INFLORESCENCES: arched to pendant, short, laxly bipinnate. SCAPE: erect to curved, as long as or shorter than the leaf-blades, glabrous, 3 mm thick, round, with few subfoliate bracts, these with a long erect sheath and an erect to spreading narrow-triangular blade. Inflorescences with 1-3 few flowering branches, in total 4 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. PRIMARY BRACTS: as long as or somewhat shorter than the short-petiolated branches, broad-ovate, acute, glabrous, olive-green. SPIKES: with 3-5, densely arranged flowers. FLORAL BRACTS: at anthesis as long as or somewhat shorter than the sepals, thin, spoonlike, appressed to the sepals. FLORAL BUDS: pea-like, somewhat flattened on the adaxial side, 0.7-1 cm long, 0.5 cm thick, with succulent, strongly asymmetric sepals (Fig. A. & B.) these are obtuse, spoonlike, glabrous, pale olive-green and darker nerved. PETALS: erect, narrow-ligulate, folded, lemon-yellow, ca. 0.5 cm exserted. FLOWERS: incompletely bisexual; in the female flowers the anthers are developed, but the pollen grains are obliterated. OVARY: superior, conical with a short style and 3 spreading stigmas (C).
|Catopsis pisiformis, flowering plant, erect leaves are arranged in nearly 5 rows.|
|Drawn by F. Ruckert|
A. & B. Cross sections
through a flower bud of Catopsis pisiformis at different heights.|
B= floral bract, S = sepal, P= petal, St = stamen, O = ovary.
|Drawn by F. Ruckert|
C. Longitudinal section
through a flower bud of Catopsis pisiformis. |
B=floral bract, S=sepal, P=petal, St=stamen, O=ovary.
HOLOTYPE: Rauh, collecting number 58 635, July, 1982
LOCALITY AND DISTRIBUTION: Central Panama, El Valle de Anton, 900 m.
C. pisiformis seems to be related to C. nutans because of its erect, long exserted petals. The most remarkable characteristic of the new species is the marked succulence of the sepals (A. & B.) which are also sharply pointed. Such strongly succulent sepals are not found in any other species of Catopsis.
1 The Latin diagnosis is published in "Bromelienstudien" XIII. Mitteilung, in Tropische und Subtropische Pflanzenwelt, Akad. d. Wes. u.d. Lit. Mainz.
REPORTED BY JOSEPH F. CARRONE, JR.
|Photo by Herbert H. Hill, Jr.|
Neoregelia Windermere (Neoregelia Green Apple × Neoregelia 'Fireball')
This hybrid has been registered recently by Mr. Herbert H. Hill, Jr., Lithia, Florida on behalf of the hybridizer, Mr. Gary Hendrix, Homestead, Florida. Mr. Hill describes the hybrid as follows: "Flowering plant: 8" to 10" across; leaves 1½" to 2" wide; foliage burgundy-red with yellow-green spots; flowers lavender; plant slightly stoloniferous."
Guzmania Candy Corn (Guzmania lingulata cardinalis × Guzmania conifera)
The overall foliage of this hybrid resembles the seed parent, G. lingulata rather than G. conifera. The mature leaves may be from 2 ft. to 3 ft. long and many plants have a maroon to pink cast on the underside of the leaves. This is a hardy hybrid, withstanding both cold temperatures in the upper 30° range and some springtime drying, in contrast to G. conifera which is affected adversely by both conditions. The inflorescence resembles that of G. conifera, however, the arrangement of the imbricate floral bracts is less regular. The scape bracts form an involucre that resembles a reduced version of that found in G. lingulata. The involucre varies in color from green to red depending on the plant. A large percentage of the hybrids exhibits multiple flower spikes, a condition not yet reported for G. conifera; but a plant with a multiple spike may not show the trait the next flowering cycle, a situation similar to some vrieseas. The hybrid is a prolific producer of offshoots, similar to G. lingulata, but appears to be unable to produce pollen. The hybridizer is Mr. Gary Hendrix, Homestead, Florida.
Neoregelia Fiesta (Neoregelia Morris Henry Hobbs × Neoregelia carolinae Amethyst)
Mr. Gary Hendrix, Homestead, Florida, the hybridizer, reports that the seedlings of this hybrid are variable but that most are shades of magenta which is the expected outcome of crossing the deep burgundy of the seed parent: Neoregelia Morris Henry Hobbs with the amethyst color of the particular variety of N. carolinae used as the pollen parent and often erroneously named N. princeps. The size of the hybrid is similar to that of N. carolinae or smaller.
× Neophytum Firecracker (Orthophytum navioides × Neoregelia 'Fireball')
This hybrid differs in color and size from × Neophytum Lymanii, × N. Ralph Davis and × N. Mollie S. Its glossy leaves are an overall deep, true red, even before maturity and it is a smaller, more compact plant, measuring only 16 in. to 18 in. in diameter. It looks its best, as do both parents, when grown in strong light. Mr. Gary Hendrix, Homestead, Florida, is the hybridizer.
× Neomea Black Snow (Aechmea chantinii × Neoregelia Marcon Foster's F47)
This hybrid is almost black in color, covered with silver scales, and has silver banding on the underside of the leaves. It reaches 18 in. in height and has leaves that are 3 in. wide. This hybrid was registered by Mrs. J.D. Racca, Lafayette, Louisiana for the hybridizer, Mr. Richard Vincent, New Iberia, Louisiana.
Neoregelia Lee (Neoregelia Rainbow × Neoregelia Black Knight, Carrone Dark Cultivar)
Mr. Claud A. Ward, Corpus Christi, Texas produced this hybrid having medium sized leaves 22 in. wide with broad red tips. The plant is deep mahogany in color and has mottled apple green markings on the leaves.
Orthophytum Copper Penny (Orthophytum saxicola × Orthophytum vagans)
The appearance of this hybrid is exactly between the 2 parents. The overall coloration on all plants is copper to rose-copper, becoming more intense under dry growing conditions, according to the hybridizer, Mr. Gary Hendrix, Homestead, Florida. The leaves are softer than those of Orthophytum vagans. The hybrid produces an elongated stem and the leaves appear in a spiral. It multiplies prolifically by runners as does the seed parent, O. saxicola; but following flowering, it produces additional offshoots below the elongated inflorescence as is the case in O. vagans. The inflorescence resembles that of O. saxicola but is much rosier in color than either the red or green form of O. saxicola. The inflorescence color and flower development continue for a longer time than occurs in either parent.
Neoregelia Florida (Neoregelia Avalon × Neoregelia Johannis)
This hybrid was registered by Boggy Creek Bromeliads, Kissimmee, Florida, for the hybridizer, Mr. Bill Weckbacher, Orlando, Florida. The plant reaches a diameter of 12 in. to 14 in. and is very compact. When in flower, the center is flushed a raspberry color and the underside of the leaves shows much white.
Aechmea Brillig (Aechmea maculata × Aechmea bromeliifolia albobracteata)
This hybrid, produced by Mr. Geoffrey C. Johnson of Pineapple Place, Longwood, Florida, has strongly banded foliage which is apple green and red-brown. The pink scape bracts are banded as on the foliage. The inflorescence is cylindrical and stands 20-25 cm above the foliage. The yellow flowers turn black as they age.
× Quesregelia Pioneer (Neoregelia ampullacea tigrina 'Midget' × Quesnelia marmorata-Carrone's curly leaved)
This is the first cross registered in the new hybrid genus, × Quesregelia made by Mr. Joseph F. Carrone, Jr., Metairie, Louisiana. The plant is short, stoloniferous, few-leaved and forms a slender rosette of medium green color with very conspicuous pin-point-sized spots of brownish red to purple, more or less evenly distributed over the entire leaf surface. Sparse trichome development gives it a hazy appearance. A hint of transverse barring of the same brownish red to purple color may appear from time to time even among ramets of the same clone. Plants are 10 in. or so tall, often much shorter, but of uniform height in a cluster. The leaves are stiff, strap-shaped, with tips rolled back and under and with a very prominent flaring mucro. Some plants have conspicuous purple or maroon fingernails at the leaf tips. The margins are closely serrate but with dull points on the spines. The marginal spines are maroon. The inflorescence is ascending to the top of the tube formed by the tall rosette of leaves, many flowered for a small plant, i.e., 25 to 35, and formed in a spherical cluster. The scape bracts are papery, white to pale green. The sepals are bright red to red-purple, heavily dotted maroon to brownish red. The petals are twice the length of the sepals, trumpet-like at anthesis, quite conspicuous, and blue-violet in color. The petals quickly turn red-violet as the flower fades. The ovaries are bright green and prominent. Since this is the first hybrid of × Quesregelia to be registered, the name Pioneer seems most appropriate.
JAMES V. ELMORE
The Legacy of John Ringling & The Brilliant Caribbean Sunset
|All photos copyright James V. Elmore, 1983|
'Grand Cayman Sunset'|
Neoregelia Caribbean Sunset 'Port O' Call'
(Neoregelia Catherine Wilson × Neoregelia cruenta 'Sun King')
In the early 1900's, John Ringling, railroad magnate and entrepreneur of The Greatest Show On Earth, moved the winter quarters of his giant, tented extravaganza to the summery-climes of Sarasota, Florida, and with it his greatest love, after the circus, that of fine art. Ringling was a man who spent his life in the world of the spectacular, the colossal, and the dazzling, and created, in this tradition, in the late 1920's, a magnificent estate and museum, on the shores of Sarasota Bay, to mirror his elaborate lifestyle and house his vast collection of European art acquisitions.
A Venetian renaissance palazzo, the Ca 'd'Zan, was carefully built in unique splendor, by scores of craftsmen transplanted from the continent. It was a masterpiece. The facade facing the water, pictured on the cover with Neoregelia King of Kings 'Silver Chalice #1' & 'Silver Chalice #2' was modeled after the Doge's Palace in Venice, Italy. Hand molded tiles of terra-cotta in soft red, yellow, blue, green, and ivory were surrounded by delicately-tinted, hand-blown Italian glass windows; the terrace, on which the plants are seen 'floating,' is constructed from 8000 sq. ft. of different variegated marbles from around the world.
To the southeast, across the formal rose garden, the John & Mabel Ringling Museum of Art was opened in 1930, to house the principal collection, which includes four huge paintings by Peter Paul Rubens, from the 'Sacrament of the Eucharist' series, so vast in size that a special gallery was commissioned to accommodate them. In other galleries works of Rembrandt, Frans Hals, El Greco, Gainsborough, Veronese, Velasquez, and other masters were hung. The most breath-taking sight of the entire Ringling complex, however, is the 350 ft. long Garden Court: a profusion of columns, doorways, bronze and stone statues, and many fountains. This courtyard, at twilight, is featured in the centerfold, pages 212 and 213, with Neoregelia Picasso 'Blue Nude' on the left, and a replica of the Roman 'Fountain Of the Tortoises', by Giacomo della Porta, on the right, and to the rear, a Florida Sunset silhouettes the Avenue of Royal Palms, topped by a massive bronze replica of Michaelangelo's 'David' one of three casts made in Naples in 1874 in honor of the 400th Anniversary of Michaelangelo's birth.
Neoregelia Blue Navy Blues 'Pacific Fleet'|
(Neoregelia melanodonta × Neoregelia concentrica 'Big Blue')
These neoregelia hybrids were not placed here by accident, nor merely to provide a beautiful backdrop for a photograph. Their significance here is as works of art within themselves, and they are of equal beauty with the other objects d' art by which they are photographically surrounded. Secondly, they are the completion of a cycle which began when I was a young boy, making many annual trips to the Museum with parents, out-of-town relatives, and school groups, whereby I was subject to the continuous exposure to and influence of the Museum's beauty, scale, and magnificence. This spectacular museum provided the inspiration for a career in art, which led to many photographic assignments in the tropics, giving me an introduction to plants as graphic forms rather than botanical specimens only, and which led to the eventual creation of these hybrids. Without this early influence of Rubens, Rembrandt, and Michaelangelo, Neoregelia King Of Kings and Picasso et al, would probably not exist today. Therefore, in these hybrids the legacy of John Ringling lives on, and it is particularly fitting that they should first be seen, where they really began 35 years ago, on the John Ringling estate.
What is a bromeliad artist? Bromeliad enthusiasts tend to classify my botanical endeavours in one of these categories: as a hybridizer, as the former editor of Grande magazine, or as a commercial grower. In reality, these are all a part of, yet individually subservient to, my principal raison d' etre for a long term involvement with these plants, which is Bromeliads As Art For The Sake of Art.
I have little formal background in the plant sciences. My training was not that of a biology major, but at The Art Center College of Design, Los Angeles, California, in fine art, design, composition, art history, and photography, directed toward photojournalism, and advertising art. My master's thesis, as it were, was done as a working travel photographer for Look, Holiday, and Venture magazines and a number of airlines and government tourist boards in the Caribbean and South America throughout the 1960's and 1970's. It was while on my first trip to the Amazon in 1967 that massive plantscapes first caught my imagination as visually compelling artforms. This experience was reinforced in following years by seeing the millions of reddish bromeliads covering the cliff-faces of the 'Lost City Of The Incas', Machu Picchu, outside Cuzco, Peru, countless other botanical masterpieces from Colombia's north coast, and the surreal spectacle of Iguassu Falls, where the corners of Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay meet, with its glens of ferns, ever glistening from the mists of the Falls. A 6 month assignment to 23 islands of the Caribbean in 1969 convinced me that the tropics, with their abundant flora and fauna, vibrant reef colors, and saturated sunsets, were for me as much a stimulant to create art as for Gauguin in Tahiti. Several trips to Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and the interior of Brazil, the natural home of neoregelias, determined my destiny: to produce a living artform which combined all these images and colors into lavish tropical compositions, with as much complexity of design and of inter-related elements as was humanly possible.
Art Form I: The Bromeliad Itself
Bromeliads are an intrinsic art form in and of themselves; in this artform, hybridizers are the artists. The bromeliads' pigment saturated cells are equivalent to oil paints; their conformation is equal to composition. In photography I work almost exclusively with color film; my 'style' is one which capitalizes on deep, rich, rainbow-spectrum hues, color filters, and dramatic lighting. Because of their color potentialities, I chose neoregelias on which to base my botanical art, for in them, among all bromeliad genera, I felt could be found the most striking colorations: scarlet red and imperial purple cup colors, school-bus yellow as in Neoregelia kautskyi, black-tips as in N. Grande, variegation, red lines, spotting, marbling, horizontal striping, and countless other variations particularly among the hybrids. Neoregelia Blue Navy Blues 'Pacific Fleet', shown on page 209, is an example, notable for its unusually patterned and color saturated barring, a phenomenon I believe is a combination of genetics and growing conditions, particularly the absorption of certain minerals in the water supply.
During the peak of the hybridizing season in late spring, I often have hundreds of neoregelias in flower simultaneously. From the very best of these, between 25 and 50 are selected on a given day for hybridization. In every case for a plant to be considered a potential hybrid parent, it must possess some specific superior quality which hopefully will lead to desirable results when combined with a different superior quality possessed by the other parent; examples of such qualities are unusual coloration or markings, very broad or unusually shaped leaves, stoloniferousness, texture, size, etc. In my opinion plants should not be used as hybrid parents just because they happen to be in flower. My assistants begin about 9:30 A.M. by very meticulously removing the pollen, placing it in taped-off, numbered squares on a 3 ft. long marble 'palette'. By the time this is completed, shortly after noon, I have a full complement of plant colors and characteristics represented by pollen samples with which to 'paint' the finished hybrid. Such an 'intrinsic artwork' takes years for completion: to mature the seed, grow out the seedlings, select the superior cultivars, and grow an offshoot generation in low nitrogen mix. Michaelangelo, working on the Sistine Chapel, and being pressed for early completion by an anxious Pope, is said to have replied that the famous ceiling would be ready when it was ready, and not before. You cannot rush art, nor neoregelias.
One wonders if eventually an end point may be reached, where no further progress can be attained by further hybridizing. I think not. By growing out all seedlings from, say, thousands of crosses, never prejudging and discarding an original before flowering, then selecting only the most superior 1-5% to hybridize with each other, or combine with other hybrids or species with specific, desirable qualities, the bromeliad world will see the rise of super-clones and super-crosses. There will be a continuing and unending line of improvement, and no dearth of new, exciting, and superior hybrids.
'The Heritage of John Ringling'|
Neoregelia Picasso 'Blue Nude'
(Neoregelia Takemura Grande × Neoregelia concentrica #1)
Art Form II: Bromeliads In Relationship To Their Environment:
In Groups, In Greenhouses, In Displays
In this artform, all bromeliad growers are artists, whether they realize it or not. A horticultural display on driftwood is an artform. A carefully shaped hanging basket is an artform. Greenhouses are both the 'galleries' in which the 'Pictures At An Exhibition' are displayed, and, when landscaped, rather than just on benches, the individual plants become brushstrokes, art-within-art, and the greenhouse is the composition itself.
Art Form III: Bromeliads Recreated In Photography, Drawings and Paintings
These traditional forms of bromeliad art may seem easier to acknowledge, for they are known and accepted art media. What may not be so readily recognized is that most bromeliad photographs and paintings combine the first two art forms into this third: there would be no art in the drawing if there was not first the intrinsic art of the plant itself in its tangible state; equally, a painting or photograph of a tillandsia in its habitat is really a reproduction, in print form, of an existing artscape.
Bromeliad art is a prized collectible, as anyone who has acquired an original by Sue Gardner, John Barbie, Lisa Megahee, or Mulford Foster can attest. Each major show and World Conference now has its own judged art show, and these shows are ever gaining in popularity. Little experimentation has been done, as yet, using bromeliads in other than their most literal form, that is, depicting them in art as realistically as possible in relation to their natural habitat. It could be most interesting to see bromeliad art in a surreal composition. Currently I am executing a series of neoregelia photographs inspired by the work of Picasso, Dali, Magritte, Rousseau, and others, and a totally different series, combining the soft sensualism characteristic of the paintings of the French impressionists, such as Renoir and Cezanne, with the graphic excitement of work by Toulouse-Lautrec. This series, shot on both 35mm and 8x10 inch Ektachrome films, will be enlarged to make portfolio prints of 16x20 in. and exhibition prints up to 4x6 ft., for the shows of 1984.
Art Form IV: The Multi-Image, Multi-Media Combination
Bromeliad growing exists principally in our society as a form of entertainment. They are entertaining to grow and flower, to socialize over at club meetings, to compete with in shows, to draw, or to photograph. Perhaps one of the most pleasurable experiences with bromeliads in recent years was Don Beadle's 'slide and music' show presented at the recent World Conference, Corpus Christi, Texas and generously repeated since. In this production, Don's lovingly photographed billbergias were slowly dissolved in and out of each other accompanied by a background of classical music. Audiences were overwhelmingly enthusiastic. Bromeliads-as-art-as-theatre has arrived.
SCREEN 1 SCREEN 2 SCREEN 3|
Photo Sequence For the Multi-Image Production
'A JOURNEY TO THE RAINBOW'S END'
I agree with Don that this is a most satisfying art form, and have worked with my own multi-image bromeliad 'show' for almost as long as I have been hybridizing. I tested a preliminary version of it at a private party in May, 1978 to see how it might work. This primitive version used 3 projectors, 3 screens, and was manually controlled. The first more polished version of the show had been in continuous preparation for 9 months before the recent World Conference, but a malfunctioning semi-tractor vehicle prevented the bulky and elaborate equipment from reaching its destination. On page 215 and on page 219 are reproductions of sequences from this show. It bears little technical resemblance to the original 1978 production, except for the three screen format. A total of nine projectors are now banked on the 3 screen areas, offering overlapping dissolves, cuts, and effects of a high degree of sophistication. All projector functions are controlled by a Clear Light Star 3 computer programmer system, and recorded on 4 channel (2 channels for sound track, 2 for computer cues) 10 in. tape. The sound track itself is provided by a moog synthesizer and full orchestral versions of such classics as the "Firebird Suite", "Bolero", "The 1812 Overture", "Fanfare For The Common Man", and "Pictures At An Exhibition".
(Neoregelia Catherine Wilson × Neoregelia Takemura Princeps)
20' × 90' × Infinity: A Journey To The Rainbow's End
This multi-image, multi-media, neoregelia-based presentation, 'A Journey To The Rainbow's End', is my own ultimate artwork. It is impossible to say whether the hybrids are a part of 'Journey', or 'Journey' a part of the hybrids, for they are each an integral part of the other. The finished presentation, to be ready for the next World Conference, Los Angeles, California in 1984, will consume, in its 45 minute length, over 5,000 different color slides on 9 projectors. Half the slides will be of hybrids; over 500 genetically different plants will be featured. The other half will be the photographic end product of 25 years of magazine and advertising photography assignments, plus slides taken specifically for 'Journey'. In this one presentation, all my lifework in photography, art, and neoregelias will come together at one time and in one place. It has taken many years to put together, and even the 1984 version will not be the final one, but a major step along the way.
'The Way We Were'|
Neoregelia Mary Elmore 'Silk Stockings'
(Neoregelia carolinae tricolor 'Perfecta' × Neoregelia Painted Desert)
I envision the evolving versions of 'Journey To The Rainbow's End', some years ahead, as having grown into a 'neoregelia spectacular' on such a scale that it will not be transportable, in its complete form, but must be presented in its own, permanent, outdoor amphitheatre (see diagram on page 218). The amphitheatre would be centered in the middle of an 80 acre botanical garden, made up of botanical artworks on a grand scale; for example, an asymmetrical half acre of orange-flowered Royal Poinciana trees, in bloom, as a canopy for thousands of purple cupped Neoregelia concentrica hybrids. Each year, as the neoregelias come into flower, a 10 day festival will be held. Seminars and workshops will be held during the day and each evening a different and more detailed version of 'Journey's' past will be presented. On the final evening, a new and totally different addition to 'Journey' will premiere that year's new hybrids.
|'A Journey To The Rainbow's End'|
The purpose of 'Journey To The Rainbow's End' is to provide pure pleasure, pure enjoyment. A Flight of the Spirit to a mystical land, Over The Rainbow, where one would find these beautiful neoregelias in their fanciful settings. 'Journey' is divided in sections, called 'Rainbows', the same by which the hybrids are named, for the 'show' was always in mind during the nomenclature process. 'Journey' is meant above all to be entertaining, and no visual or musical effect is out of the question if it will add to the enjoyment of the presentation. During the 'America, America' sequence, a circle of Stars & Stripes will slowly ascend their flagstaffs, to the accompaniment of 'The Star Spangled Banner' and a display of fireworks. 'Islands In The Sun' will bring forth the whole sunny world of the Caribbean; 'Rio Amazonas' the mysteries of the rain forests and woolly monkeys and 'Victory', the Second World War. And, of course, to the unforgettable strains of 'Over The Rainbow', what more fitting finale than to see the Wizard himself float off in a rainbow-paneled hot air balloon, followed by Hollywood searchlights, into the starry night sky? I have long determined that there can be only one standard for whether this artform is a success: does it fill the heart with happiness and send chills and tingles up and down the spine? This ultimate 'Journey' may come to pass in the next five years or ten years or never. Remember Michaelangelo's carefully reasoned answer, and that Tolkien took over 20 years to complete the 1500 page trilogy, 'The Lord Of The Rings'. Good things do not necessarily come quickly. Everything Has Its Own Time.
SCREEN 1 SCREEN 2 SCREEN 3|
Photo Sequence For the Multi-Image Production
'A JOURNEY TO THE RAINBOW'S END'
All photographs in this article and the cover photograph by James V. Elmore. Copyrighted 1983.
WILHELM WEBERAfter his discovery of the "New World", Columbus was followed for a long time by numerous adventurers who by conquering new territories hoped to enrich themselves and the countries they represented. Only considerably later did the scientific exploration of hitherto unknown regions begin. At first, the material which reached Europe consisted of the most conspicuous curiosities, but gradually as scientific expeditions brought more specimens, they began to receive the attention of specialists who systematically examined and described them.
In order for knowledge of new plants to be added to the body of scientific information, it is necessary for all the factors and circumstances between the plant growing in the field and the final, correctly prepared specimen to occur in proper sequence, like the links in a chain, and not be broken by some omission. For example, a collector who finds a new plant must prepare a specimen at anthesis in its habitat, make adequate notes and prepare for the specimen's safe transportation to a destination where it will receive the attention of an appropriate scientist who can examine it and perhaps prepare for a publication. If this chain of conditions is broken, that is, if a link is missing, then all efforts will have been in vain. In the last century, many carefully collected specimens were ruined on their way from the interior to a seaport or between the port and Europe. Humboldt and Bonpland, for example, were aware of these problems so they divided their collections into parts for separate shipment. How wise they were was proven by the fact that the first shipment was lost due to a shipwreck! Even after a safe journey, many collections were ignored by the European scientific community. In many herbaria today it is not uncommon to find bundles of undetermined specimens, more than 100 years old, unnoticed, gathering dust.
During an examination of some specimens among a group of undetermined plants from the Fielding-Druce Herbarium at Oxford University, I found a sheet with a hitherto undescribed species of Hohenbergia erroneously labeled "Chili" on a printed label and without any notes. Using the key in Flora Neotropica I was led to Hohenbergia eriantha (Brongn.) Mez 1894, but the specimen from Oxford is very different in having much larger suberect branches, very broad leaves, and other differing details. The specimen I examined probably came from Brazil: Bahia or Pernambuco, judging by the distribution of its nearest relatives; furthermore, Chile is far distant from all known habitats of species of Hohenbergia. From the state of preservation of the sheet, I estimated the age of it to be more than 100 years. No duplicates are known. In the hope that in the near future collectors will rediscover this impressive and handsome species, I present a drawing and description of it. The Latin diagnosis appears in Feddes Repertorium V. 94.
|Hohenbergia oxoniensis Weber. A = inflorescence, B = leaf fragment, C = secondary bract, D = one-flowered spike with secondary bract, E = flower bract, F = flower, G = sepal, H = section of ovary.|
Hohenbergia oxoniensis Weber
PLANT: fragmentary, probably over 1 m high. LEAVES: fragmentary without sheath, 57 cm long, to 14 cm wide, lingulate, acuminate, apex with a subulate darkbrown mucro, margins dense serrate with 2.5 mm long brown spines, on both sides faintly appressed lepidote, below indistinct crossbanded due to more dense trichomes. SCAPE & SCAPEBRACTS: not seen. INFLORESCENCE: tripinnate lax, pyramidal, 35 cm high, axis woody, 10 mm in diameter, faintly geniculate, strongly nerved, pale brown tomentose. PRIMARY BRACTS: lanceolate, long acuminate, to 12 cm long, 32 mm wide, submembranaceous, entire, strongly nerved, the lower subdense, the higher only dissite brown lepidote. LATERAL BRANCHES: long strobiliform, arcuate ascendent, dense multiflowered, 40-95 mm long, 30-40 mm diameter, 2-4 cm stipitate without bracts. SECONDARY BRACTS: lance-triangulate, very long acuminate with subulate apex, suberect, 20-32 mm long, to 10 mm wide, coriaceous, entire, strongly nerved, very indistinct dissite lepidote, exceeding the spikes. SPIKES: usually 1-flowered, at base, rarely 2-flowered. FLOWERS: sessile. FLOWERBRACTS: late-ovate, cucullate, without mucro 9 mm long, 7 mm wide, coriaceous, with membranaceous entire margins, strongly nerved, glabrous, at apex with a 5 mm long darkbrown mucro, exceeding the sepals. SEPALS: subfree, 6 mm long, 5 mm wide, obtuse but with a 2.5 mm long mucro and strongly asymmetric membranaceous margins. OVARY: 3-4 mm long, ovules caudate, at apex loculated, epigynous tube indistinct. PETALS: stamens and style not seen.
HOLOTYPE: Fielding-Druce Herbarium, Oxford University (OXF). Collector and habitat: unknown.
I thank Dr. Lyman B. Smith for his valuable comments and the Keeper of the Herbarium of the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, for a photograph of the holotype of Hohenbergia eriantha.
Waldsteinberg, German Democratic Republic
|Photo by Albert M. Hodes|
|"Bromeliads" by Barbara Meise Kassis, painted, etched and fired glass window, 20 in. × 30 in.|